A live or dead ball appeal is a play or situation on which an umpire cannot make a decision unless requested by a manager, coach or player of the non-offending team.  A coach or manager may only make a dead ball appeal and only after stepping onto the playing field.

If made by a fielder, the fielder must be in the infield when making the appeal.  The appeal may not be made after any one of the following has occurred.
a. A legal pitch has been thrown or an illegal pitch has been called.
1. An appeal for the use of an Illegal Substitute, Illegal Re-entry, a Replacement Player or Withdrawn Player (either leaving or returning to the line-up under the Replacement Player Rule) and not reporting to the umpire can be made anytime while such player is still in the game.
2. An appeal for runners switching positions on the bases they occupied may be made any time until all such runners are in the dugout or the half inning is over.

b. The pitcher and all defensive players have left fair territory; or
c. The umpires have left the field of play following the last play of the game.
These are the types of appeals:
a. Missing a base
b. Leaving a base on a caught fly ball before the ball is first touched
c. Batting out-of-order
d. Attempting to advance to second base after making a turn at first base
e. Illegal substitutions
f. The use of unannounced players under the Replacement Player Rule
g. Illegal re-entry
h. The use of unannounced players under the Designated Player Rule
i. Runners switching positions on the bases they occupied

R1 Sec. 13. BLOCKED BALL.  

A blocked ball is a batted, thrown or pitched ball that:
a. Becomes lodged in the fencing, or
b. Is touched, stopped or handled by a person not engaged in the game, or
c. Touches any object that is not part of the official equipment or playing area, or
d. Is touched by a defensive player who is in contact with the ground that is not part of the playing area.

A thrown ball touching a base coach accidentally (in or out of the coaches box) is not a blocked ball.


A charged conference takes place when
a. Offensive Conference: The offensive team requests a suspension of play to allow the manager, or other team representative, to confer with any member of their team.
b. Defensive Conference.  The defensive team requests a suspension of play to allow a representative of the defensive team to enter the playing field to communicate with any defensive player or a fielder leaves his position and goes to the dugout and gives the umpire reason to believe that he received instruction.
Note to Sec 17b:  It is not a charged conference if the coach/manager notifies the plate umpire of a change of pitchers either before or after communicating with the pitcher.

R1 Sec. 20. CROW HOP. (FP ONLY)  

A Crow hop is defined as the act of a pitcher who does not push off from the pitcher's plate to deliver the ball. The pitcher steps off from the plate and then establishes a second impetus (or starting point) and pushes off from the new starting point and completes the delivery. (THIS IS AN ILLEGAL ACT) NOTE: The pitcher may leap, from the pitcher’s plate, land and with a continuous motion deliver the ball to the plate. The pivot foot may push off and/or follow through with this continuous action and this is not considered a crow hop.


The Designated Runner is a starting offensive player who may run once only in each inning and is listed in the eleventh (11th) position on the line-up card.

R1 Sec. 35. FORCE OUT.

A force-out is an out which can be made only when a runner loses the right to the base which he is occupying because the batter becomes a batter-runner, and before the batter-runner or a succeeding runner has been put out.  On an appeal play the force out is determined at the time the appeal is made; not at the time of the infraction.


An Illegal Re-entry occurs when:
a. A starting player returns to the game a second time after twice being substituted.
b. A starting player returns to the game after being substituted but not in his original position in the offensive line-up.
c. A substitute who has legally been in the game returns to the game after being replaced by either the original starting player or another substitute.
d. The starting DP (FP ONLY) or his substitute is placed into the batting order in a position other than his original starting position.
e. A Flex player who is placed in the batting order in a position other than that of the starting DP.


An Ineligible Replacement Player is a player who may NOT enter the game to replace a player who must leave the game to attend to an injury that has caused bleeding. An Ineligible Replacement Player is one who:
a. Has been either removed or ejected from the game by the umpire for a violation of the rules.
b Is in the current line-up.
cNZ Commences the game as the DR


An intentional base on balls occurs when the defensive team desires to place the batter on first base without the requirement to deliver four pitched balls.  This is referred to as an Intentional Walk.  The ball is dead.  

R1 Sec. 61. LEAPING (FP ONLY).

Leaping is the act of a pitcher that causes him to be airborne on his initial move and push from the pitcher’s plate. The momentum built by the forward movement of the pitcher causes the entire body; including both the pivot and stepping (non-pivot) foot to be in the air at the same time and moving towards home plate.  The pitch is completed when the pitcher lands and with a continuous motion delivers the ball to the plate. The pivot foot may push off and/or follow through with this continuous action. Leaping is a legal act.

R1 Sec. 64. LINE DRIVE.  

A line drive is a ball in flight that is batted sharply and directly into the playing field.


An Offensive Player Only (OPO) is a player in the batting order, other than the FLEX, for whom the DP is playing defense. The OPO continues to play offense, but not play defense.


Official Equipment is considered to be any equipment (bats, gloves, helmets, etc.) in current use by the defensive or offensive team in the course of play. Defensive equipment (gloves for example) left on the field by the team playing offense would not be considered as Official Equipment.